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赛珍珠译本《水浒传》中的女性角色

2017-09-21 13:24英语翻译 浏览:
《水浒传》是一部充满男权主义的古典小说,而且许多性角色都是从反面来进行描写,如潘金莲、阎婆惜等放荡角色,而性英雄们则都被男性化,失去了女性的柔美,单从女英雄的称呼上就能看出,如一丈青扈三娘、母夜叉孙二娘、母大虫顾大嫂。赛珍珠作为女性译者,发挥了译者的主观能动性,在尊重原文意义的基础上,对原文中的女性形象进行了一定程度的改写。

例1、那清河县里有一个大户人家,有个使女,小名唤作潘金莲,年方二十馀岁,颇有些颜色。因为那个大户要缠他,这使女只是去告主人婆,意下不肯依从。那个大户以此恨记于心,却倒赔些房奁,不要武大一文钱,白白嫁与他。

赛译:Now in the city of Ching Ho was a great family who had a slave girl whose mother’s family was surnamed Pan, and her own name was Golden Lotus. Her age was something over twenty and she was exceedingly beautiful. Because the lord of that house desired her this maid wanted to tell his wife for she would not give in to him. Then the Lord remembered this and hated her, and so he gave her a dowry and he gave her for nothing to Wu The First as wife.

沙译:Now, it happened that a wealthy family there had a maidservant by the name of Pan Jinlian. In her early twenties, she was quite pretty, and the master of the house began pestering her. Jinlian, or Golden Lotus, didn’t want him, and told his wife. He hated her so much for this that he personally provided her with a dowry and married her off to Wu the Elder, free of charge.

解析:此片段介绍了潘金莲的身世背景,以及嫁给武大郎的缘由。沙博理的译文为“Jinlian, or Golden Lotus, didn’t want him”。而赛珍珠的译文为“she would not give in to him”,“give in to”展现了潘金莲不愿屈服、敢于反抗的性格特点。赛译增加了作者自己的理解,引导读者在男权世界下对女性主体的重新认识。



例2、潘金莲被武松说了这一篇,一点红从耳朵边起,紫涨了面皮,指着武大便骂道:“你这个腌臜混沌!有甚么言语在外人处说来,欺负老娘!我是一个不戴头巾男子汉,叮叮嗜喈的婆娘!拳头上立得人,胳膊上走得马,人面上行得人,不是那搠不出的鳖老婆。”

赛译:When Wu Sung had said this to the woman a little red began to creep out from her ears and her face turned a deep scarlet. She pointed at Wu The Elder and began to curse, saying, “ You filthy stupid thing! What have you been saying outside to persecute me? I am as good as a man even if I do not wrap a man’s kerchief about my head. A good sound female I am — as sound as a cup that rings true I am! A man could stand on my fist, and a horse could gallop on my outstretched arm! I am better than the best! I am not one of those that cannot be brought out for others to see, and I am no good — for — naught female.”

解析:这段话描写的是潘金莲勾引武松遭拒后的情景。潘金莲在原文中是个放荡的泼妇形象,也是历来不贞女性的象征,但是赛珍珠的译文中增补了“I am as good as a man”“ A good sound female I am”和“I am no good — for — naught female”这些语句,反而给读者留下了一个巾帼不让须眉的直爽女性的形象,展现了潘金莲虽拥有姣好面容,却嫁给武大郎,内心深处的不满与愤怒。



例3、看看抹过大树边,早望见一个酒店,门前窗槛边坐着一个妇人,露出绿纱衫儿来。头上黄烘烘的插着一头钗环,鬓边插着些野花......下面系一条鲜红生绢裙,搽一脸胭脂铅粉,敞开胸脯,露出桃红纱主腰,上面一色金钮。

赛译:Passing beside the tree they saw a wine shop and there on a beach beneath the window and beside the door sat a woman and she was robed in a green robe and on her head were many yellow glittering ornaments of gold. Over her ears she had thrust wild flowers...She wore girdle about her a thin silk skirt of a deep red color. All over her face she had spread powder and paint, and her gown was open at the bosom so that her inner garment showed a pale peach hue. Across the top of this garment was a row of gold buttons, each like to the other.

解析: 选段为孙二娘的出场,原作者用了“露出”、“敞开”、“搽”等字眼,展现了一个略显粗鲁低俗的女性形象,而赛珍珠只选用了较为中性的词语,如“open”“show”“wear”,一定程度上弱化了原文中被贬低的人物形象。



例4、一丈青见宋江义气深重,推不得,两口儿只得拜谢了。

赛译:The The Ten Foot Green Snake, seeing how kind a man Sung Chiang was, could not refuse him.

沙译:Ten Feet of Steel saw how deeply Song Jiang felt his chinalrous obligation. She was unable to refuse.

解析:在梁山三位女英雄中,一丈青扈三娘最为漂亮,武功也很高强,但在男权社会中,她完全处于失语状态。即使宋江设计让宋太公认她做干女儿,然后将她许配给王矮虎时,也只好顺从接受。在沙译中将义气译为“chivalrous obligation”,而在赛译中则为“seeing how kind a man Sung Chiang was”。这个“义气”,更多的其实是宋江对往矮虎的义气,是建立在决定他人婚嫁之上的义气。赛珍珠将其解读为宋江对自己不错,不能让宋江难堪,无奈答应。



赛珍珠并不认同《水浒传》中对女性的偏见,在处理处于被丑化和失语的女性角色时,她采取个性化的翻译策略,让这些女性形象更加多面、更加立体丰富。 同济大学公众号

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